ghc-7.6.3: The GHC API

Safe HaskellNone




data GhcException Source

GHC's own exception type error messages all take the form:

      location: error

If the location is on the command line, or in GHC itself, then location=ghc. All of the error types below correspond to a location of ghc, except for ProgramError (where the string is assumed to contain a location already, so we don't print one).


PhaseFailed String ExitCode 
Signal Int

Some other fatal signal (SIGHUP,SIGTERM)

UsageError String

Prints the short usage msg after the error

CmdLineError String

A problem with the command line arguments, but don't print usage.

Panic String

The impossible happened.

PprPanic String SDoc 
Sorry String

The user tickled something that's known not to work yet, but we're not counting it as a bug.

PprSorry String SDoc 
InstallationError String

An installation problem.

ProgramError String

An error in the user's code, probably.

PprProgramError String SDoc 

showGhcException :: GhcException -> String -> StringSource

Append a description of the given exception to this string.

progName :: StringSource

The name of this GHC.

pgmError :: String -> aSource

Panics and asserts.

panic :: String -> aSource

Panics and asserts.

sorry :: String -> aSource

Panics and asserts.

panicFastInt :: String -> FastIntSource

Panic while pretending to return an unboxed int. You can't use the regular panic functions in expressions producing unboxed ints because they have the wrong kind.

assertPanic :: String -> Int -> aSource

Throw an failed assertion exception for a given filename and line number.

trace :: String -> a -> aSource

The trace function outputs the trace message given as its first argument, before returning the second argument as its result.

For example, this returns the value of f x but first outputs the message.

 trace ("calling f with x = " ++ show x) (f x)

The trace function should only be used for debugging, or for monitoring execution. The function is not referentially transparent: its type indicates that it is a pure function but it has the side effect of outputting the trace message.

class (Typeable e, Show e) => Exception e whereSource

Any type that you wish to throw or catch as an exception must be an instance of the Exception class. The simplest case is a new exception type directly below the root:

 data MyException = ThisException | ThatException
     deriving (Show, Typeable)

 instance Exception MyException

The default method definitions in the Exception class do what we need in this case. You can now throw and catch ThisException and ThatException as exceptions:

*Main> throw ThisException `catch` \e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: MyException))
Caught ThisException

In more complicated examples, you may wish to define a whole hierarchy of exceptions:

 -- Make the root exception type for all the exceptions in a compiler

 data SomeCompilerException = forall e . Exception e => SomeCompilerException e
     deriving Typeable

 instance Show SomeCompilerException where
     show (SomeCompilerException e) = show e

 instance Exception SomeCompilerException

 compilerExceptionToException :: Exception e => e -> SomeException
 compilerExceptionToException = toException . SomeCompilerException

 compilerExceptionFromException :: Exception e => SomeException -> Maybe e
 compilerExceptionFromException x = do
     SomeCompilerException a <- fromException x
     cast a

 -- Make a subhierarchy for exceptions in the frontend of the compiler

 data SomeFrontendException = forall e . Exception e => SomeFrontendException e
     deriving Typeable

 instance Show SomeFrontendException where
     show (SomeFrontendException e) = show e

 instance Exception SomeFrontendException where
     toException = compilerExceptionToException
     fromException = compilerExceptionFromException

 frontendExceptionToException :: Exception e => e -> SomeException
 frontendExceptionToException = toException . SomeFrontendException

 frontendExceptionFromException :: Exception e => SomeException -> Maybe e
 frontendExceptionFromException x = do
     SomeFrontendException a <- fromException x
     cast a

 -- Make an exception type for a particular frontend compiler exception

 data MismatchedParentheses = MismatchedParentheses
     deriving (Typeable, Show)

 instance Exception MismatchedParentheses where
     toException   = frontendExceptionToException
     fromException = frontendExceptionFromException

We can now catch a MismatchedParentheses exception as MismatchedParentheses, SomeFrontendException or SomeCompilerException, but not other types, e.g. IOException:

*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: MismatchedParentheses))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: SomeFrontendException))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: SomeCompilerException))
Caught MismatchedParentheses
*Main> throw MismatchedParentheses catch e -> putStrLn ("Caught " ++ show (e :: IOException))
*** Exception: MismatchedParentheses

showException :: Exception e => e -> StringSource

Show an exception as a string.

safeShowException :: Exception e => e -> IO StringSource

Show an exception which can possibly throw other exceptions. Used when displaying exception thrown within TH code.

try :: Exception e => IO a -> IO (Either e a)Source

Similar to catch, but returns an Either result which is (Right a) if no exception of type e was raised, or (Left ex) if an exception of type e was raised and its value is ex. If any other type of exception is raised than it will be propogated up to the next enclosing exception handler.

  try a = catch (Right `liftM` a) (return . Left)

Note that System.IO.Error also exports a function called try with a similar type to try, except that it catches only the IO and user families of exceptions (as required by the Haskell 98 IO module).

tryMost :: IO a -> IO (Either SomeException a)Source

Like try, but pass through UserInterrupt and Panic exceptions. Used when we want soft failures when reading interface files, for example. TODO: I'm not entirely sure if this is catching what we really want to catch

throwTo :: Exception e => ThreadId -> e -> IO ()Source

throwTo raises an arbitrary exception in the target thread (GHC only).

throwTo does not return until the exception has been raised in the target thread. The calling thread can thus be certain that the target thread has received the exception. This is a useful property to know when dealing with race conditions: eg. if there are two threads that can kill each other, it is guaranteed that only one of the threads will get to kill the other.

Whatever work the target thread was doing when the exception was raised is not lost: the computation is suspended until required by another thread.

If the target thread is currently making a foreign call, then the exception will not be raised (and hence throwTo will not return) until the call has completed. This is the case regardless of whether the call is inside a mask or not. However, in GHC a foreign call can be annotated as interruptible, in which case a throwTo will cause the RTS to attempt to cause the call to return; see the GHC documentation for more details.

Important note: the behaviour of throwTo differs from that described in the paper "Asynchronous exceptions in Haskell" ( In the paper, throwTo is non-blocking; but the library implementation adopts a more synchronous design in which throwTo does not return until the exception is received by the target thread. The trade-off is discussed in Section 9 of the paper. Like any blocking operation, throwTo is therefore interruptible (see Section 5.3 of the paper). Unlike other interruptible operations, however, throwTo is always interruptible, even if it does not actually block.

There is no guarantee that the exception will be delivered promptly, although the runtime will endeavour to ensure that arbitrary delays don't occur. In GHC, an exception can only be raised when a thread reaches a safe point, where a safe point is where memory allocation occurs. Some loops do not perform any memory allocation inside the loop and therefore cannot be interrupted by a throwTo.

If the target of throwTo is the calling thread, then the behaviour is the same as throwIO, except that the exception is thrown as an asynchronous exception. This means that if there is an enclosing pure computation, which would be the case if the current IO operation is inside unsafePerformIO or unsafeInterleaveIO, that computation is not permanently replaced by the exception, but is suspended as if it had received an asynchronous exception.

Note that if throwTo is called with the current thread as the target, the exception will be thrown even if the thread is currently inside mask or uninterruptibleMask.

installSignalHandlers :: IO ()Source

Install standard signal handlers for catching ^C, which just throw an exception in the target thread. The current target thread is the thread at the head of the list in the MVar passed to installSignalHandlers.